▹The Pholadzaw Kingdom◃

The Pholadzaw Kingdom was the first established nation-state in the Gulf Region of Tays. Before around -1300r, the Pholadzaw people were organized into a variety of chiefdoms and clans; around this time, contact with the Qaic civilizations was established. According to legend (historicity notwithstanding), a Pholadzaw couple known as Thapilə and Makluwənot, of the Kipkhe clan, led a unification of most of the clans, established the early Kingdom, and led a war against the clans that had not joined.


Pholadzaw was the primary language of the Pholadzaw Kingdom. It flourished from around -800r to -200r. It is the namesake of the Pholadzawic family, and is the most well-recorded member of said family. The first significant written record is dated to -923r, and is a list of rulers’ names, families, and two- or three-word phrases listing accomplishments of their rule. The language can be divided into Archaic (-1000r to -650r), Early (-650r to -400r), and Late (-400r to -100r) periods. This grammar describes primarily Early Pholadzaw. Pholadzaw left behind two recorded descendants, known as Sizačkemin and Ketsporan.

Pholadzaw is largely unremarkable for its area and time, and is very representative of the Faioan Sprachbund. It is an agglutinative, nominative-accusative, verb-heavy language. The first grammatical treatment of the language was written by one Nəthab of Sudzantsikhə, and dates to -609r. The work (“My studies of the throats of the king and his children”) details the phonology and some simple syntax of Pholadzaw, and compares it to Matonno and Kublagədin, two more Pholadzawic languages.





Generally, the first syllable of a word is stressed. However, if a word has a consonant cluster, the first vowel after the first consonant cluster is stressed, unless said vowel is the final vowel in a word of more than 3 syllables.

 sami /ˈsa.mi/
 thatuk /ˈtʰa.tuk/
 amwu /am.ˈwu/
 pakhaypudga /pa.kʰaj.ˈpud.ga/


The maximal root is CVCVC or CVCCV, although derived, inflected, and loaned words can violate these restraints. Any consonant can appear in any position, except /h/ which can not follow another consonant, and /l/ which can not appear as a coda.

Geminates can occur within a root, but only for nasals and /s z/, and only between two vowels. Across morphemes, geminates can also occur for stops. Approximants and affricates can not geminate.

▹Allophony & Morphophonology◃

As codas, aspirated consonants tend to be realized as pre-aspirated:

gəph “cat” /gəpʰ/ [gəʰp~gəɸp]
satokh “funeral” /satokʰ/ [satoʰk~satoxk]

Voiced obstruents as codas occasionally cause preceding vowels to become creaky:

ňab “to eat” /ɲab/ [nʲăa̰b]
koyez “ocean” /kojez/ [kojĕɛ̰z]

There is regressive voice assimilation in consonant clusters; aspiration moves to the final stop of any cluster:

kud “to write” /kud/ [kŭʊ̰d] > kutkuwə “to fearfully write” /kutkuwə/ [kutkuwə]
eph “to puncture” /epʰ/ [eʰp] > epkhoyo “to want to puncture” /epʰkojo/ [epkʰojo]

Sibilant clusters (both affricates and fricatives) are not easily predictable from other rules:


Additionally, a cluster of /tʰ t d/ followed by any of /ts dz tʃ dʒ/ become [k g].

As for nasals, /m n/ do not assimilate, but /ɲ/ does. This is marked in the romanization.

▷▹Nominal Morphology◃◁


Nouns have little inflection; in Archaic Pholadzaw, nouns were inflected for nominative, accusative, locative, genitive, and dative. By the time of Early Pholadzaw, only the genitive was preserved. Additionally, nouns can optionally be marked for the plural.


The genitive is marked with -yə. After post-alveolars, the suffix is realized as -əs, and after labials (except /m/), it is -ko.

banə “viper” > banəyə
thatuk “yeast” > thatukyə
mənaj “wig” > mənajəs
tsob “fence” > tsopko


Most nouns can be pluralized with -khə. This is a “true” plural - it refers exclusively to multiples of the same kind. There is also an associative plural, -wəň. The associative plural refers to a group where the inflected noun is the “core” or most prominent member:

“mother” > bəkhə “mothers, multiple mothers” > bəwəň “a family unit”
miwə “fire” > miwəkhə “fires” > miwəwəň “fire (and the other elements)”

Nouns that ends in a labial consonant (/m b p pʰ w/) are pluralized with -pho (and the final consonant is deleted). Nouns that end in /s z c j/ use -ci (and the final consonant is deleted).

Uncountable nouns can still be pluralized, although the meaning is closer to an augmentative than a plural. Associative plurals then refer to a variety of types of the noun.

kom “water” > kopho “a great amount of water” > komwəň “many types of (bodies of) water”
cəkə “wool” > cəkəkhə “a lot of wool” > cəkəwəň “many kinds of wool”

Some nouns have suppletive/irregular plural forms:

khab “city” > khawak “cities”
cas “man” > cats “men” > cayňo “group of men”
saba “hand” > sawəb “hands”
law “sheep” > loz “sheep (pl.)” > layo “group of sheep”
woth “child” > yəco “children” > wodə “group of children”
əycə “shadow; servant” > əytsi “servants”


Personal pronouns mark only person, genitive, and plurality; gender and other cases are not distinguished in the standard dialect.
Demonstratives are ňac “this” and bac “that”. They may be used as pronouns or as determiners. Using demonstratives as pronouns is preferred for inanimate objects over 3rd person pronouns.

Demonstratives may be used to distinguish multiple 3rd person arguments: wey ňac “this he” and wey bac “that he”. There are reduced forms in casual speech: weňe and weba.

▹Nominal Conjunctions◃

Multiple nominal arguments can be strung together with zəy “and”, ussu “or”, and ha “but not”:

Zəy ke pats kiy wic.
and sister 1S.POSS dog 3S.POSS
 My sister and her dog.

Ha uňaň əytsi wic.
but.not queen servant-PL 3S.POSS
 The queen, but not her servants.


Pholadzaw does not have a true class of adjectives; nouns or verbs can modify a noun. They typically follow the noun they modify, and remain uninflected:

ohə pabə
pile make.wet
 wet pile

ňussu miň se
hops be.red choose
 chosen red hops

▷▹Verbal Morphology◃◁


Verbs inflect for tense, aspect, person, and an ambiguous category typically called “contextuals”. The inflectional order is root-contextual-person-tense-aspect.


Contextuals cover a range of meanings, and can be subdivided into multiple categories: intentials, circumstantials, manners, consequentials, resultatives, interrogatives and modality. These categories are grouped together because only one may occur on a given verb.

Intentials cover the emotional and/or mental state of the agent or experiencer, as well as their goal or motivation, before or during the action.

-kuwə : fear
-phus : love, devotion
-zuy : self-benefit, pleasure
-thab : benefit of another
-(ə)bəji : with instruction, with guidance, with supervision
-lə : out of obligation, due to being commanded to
-tug : using a tool
-gabu : intensely, with power
-len : cruelty; an action that harms another but benefits the agent
-səmi : planned, with forethought
-weň : without forethought, impulsively; accidentally
-koyo : with desire; to want to
-məlay : as an example
-hutsa : alone; only
-ňitsa : in a group
-way : skillfully, expertly; quickly; intensely
-saph : poorly, clumsily; slowly; weakly

Circumstantials cover the state of the patient or theme before or during the action. Generally, circumstantials deal with physical states, although some affixes also refer to mental or emotional states.

-kawni : misguided, mistaken, unsure
-lamiy : enthusiastic, receptive, willing
-moji : unwilling, hesitant
-dələ : prone, laying flat, in a stable position
-juy : unstable, unsturdy
-huju : alone
-ňiju : in a group
-(u)yaz : asleep, unaware

Consequentials mark the state of the agent or experiencer after (as a result of) the action.

-(a)cak : satisfaction; accomplished goals
-(i)wo : dissatisfaction; unaccomplished goals
-ləza : health, wellness; corrected
-(ə)myə : injury, sickness; misaligned, misformed
-bəj : achieved knowledge, learned X
-thətsa : closer (to location or to focus)
-muktsa : farther (from location or from focus)

Resultatives mark the state of the patient or theme after (as a result of) the action.

-niy : halved
-guwa : destroyed, smashed, transformed, gone
-tsube : covered, buried, lost, hidden
-sobats : revealed, exposed
-(ə)mak : covered, hidden
-webəj : achieved knowledge, learned X
-thəju : closer (to location or to focus)
-mugju : farther (from location or from focus)

Interrogatives are used to ask questions. Syntactical formations for questions will be covered later.

-ta : asks a yes/no question
-(ə)lədz : when
-kuňu : where
-(a)gway : what, who (agent)
-nəlam : what, whom (patient)
-(ə)lədzu : which (of a certain number)
-(i)dzək : questions intential (“what state was the agent in?”)
-boji : questions circumstantial (“what state was the patient in?”)
-(ə)həz : questions consequential (“what happened to the agent?”)
-(ə)huwi : questions resultative (“what happened to the patient?”)

Modal contextuals describe the certainty or reality of an event.

-(i)yaň : energetic mood; the action really happened
-(u)lij : dubitative; the action probably didn’t happen
-tsoye : assumptive; the action probably happened
-tow : conditional I; the action has not happened, but could; or, the agent has the ability to
-dew : conditional II; the action will happen if certain circumstances are met


Person marking agrees with the subject, although there are a number of person affixes which deal with relationships between 1st and 2nd person. 3rd person, as either subject or object, are typically unmarked (with the exception of 3rd plural subject).

 1st singular : -po (-pə before /w Co Cu/, or after /u w/)
 1st plural inclusive : -bak
 1st plural exclusive : -khut
 2nd singular : -de (-də before /j Ce Ci/, or after /i j/)
 2nd plural : -tse (-tsə before /j Ce Ci/, or after /i j/)
 3rd singular : unmarked
 3rd plural : -gəy
 1st singular to 2nd singular : -pud
 1st singular to 2nd plural : -dzon
 1st singular to 1st plural inclusive : -(ə)ňa
 1st singular to 1st plural exclusive : -goz
 2nd singular to 1st singular : -nəd
 2nd singular to 1st plural : -məts
 2nd plural to 1st singular : -ke
 2nd plural to 1st plural : -ley
 3rd non-reflexive (3rd to other 3rd) : -wək


There are four tenses: past, immediate past, present, and future.

 past : -wo (-bo after /w/)
 immediate past : -daw
 present : unmarked
 future : -(a)ň


The aspectual suffixes are historically related to complete verbs:

 cessative : -zik (from zəki “to stop”)
 continuous : -(o)z (from woz “to grind, to mill”)
 momentane : -jə (from ujə “to blink”)
 iterative : -phoy (from bohi “to stutter”)
 dynamic : -ga (from hag “to drop”)
 stative : -(u)be (from oybe “to hold”)

▷▹Derivational Morphology◃◁


The derivational morphemes, unless stated otherwise, can be used on any part of speech. Compound words, both nouns and verbs, also exist; compounds are typically head-first.


-no : location
  bage > Bageno : deer > Bageno ("deer place," a city name)
  pako > pakəno : to harvest > granary

 -(reduce -i and -u to ) : agent, esp. for non-humans
  hadzi > hadzə : to whine > tin
  wenu > wenə : to mark > chalk

-əp : agent
  wən > wənəp : to cry > baby
  ňathək > ňathəkəp : to do harmful magic > witch

-lə : agent
  nela > nelalə : one who raises (something); castle guard
  ewik > ewiklə : to seal, to finish > mordant, polish

-yez : collective, augmentative, abstract
  kom > koyez : water > ocean
  kabaň > kabayez : to imagine > dream, imagination

-mə : pieces of X, diminutive
  hag > hagmə : to fall, drop > snow
  ucəm > ucəmmə : to felt > felt

-im or -ymu : haver of X
  zima > zimaymu : egg > nest
  guw > guwim : ear > hear

-ag- : augmentative
  zeg > zageg : lips > vulva (vulgar)
  liw > lagiw : path > road

-uy- : similar to X
  hukhu > huyukhu : sheep > huyucu (wild relative of the sheep)
  phiz > phuyiz : mosquito > horsefly

i- or iy- : process, event
  duy > iduy : to be in labor > labor
  weth > iweth : to compose (poetry) > poem


-y : associated action
  thatuk > thatuy : yeast > to bake (bread)
  pakhats > pakhay : beard > to shave

-ts : to have an ability, to have a property
  bəwla > bolats : language > to speak a language
  tommə > tomməts : to drink > to be potable

-k or -kə : makes a verb more "concrete" or intensive
  dzay > dzaykə : to turn > to roll (up)
  zəki > zəkik : to stop > to imprison

-je : to produce
  dac > daje : urine > to urinate
  jum > juňje : flour > to mill



Pholadzaw does not have a strong distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. Note that verbs that are used to head a verb phrase must be inflected; uninflected verbs are exclusively used adjectivally or as grammatical particles.

▹Sentence Order◃

Generally, Pholadzaw is SVO. Oblique arguments are typically on the outskirts of the core SVO phrase. Other transformations will be covered later.

▹Noun Phrases◃

The order of noun phrases is fairly strict: noun then numeral then color or appearance then origin then material then shape or size then verbal adjectives then possessor or determiner.

Pakəno jəksəmipodaw gəph məs deyak.
granary find-planned-1S-IPST cat three ugly
 I found three ugly cats in the granary.

ləwə koyez cəki mad thad
flat.thing sea glass large burn
 a big piece of burned glass from the sea

▹Comparatives and Superlatives◃

To create greater comparatives, one marks the relevant adjective with the verb nela, “to be above”:

bəwikhə tubwi nela
grape-PL be.ripe be.above
 the more ripe grapes

Lesser comparatives are marked with the verb tek, “to be below”:

cub iz tek pats
finger be.frostbit be.below 1S.POSS
 my less frostbit finger

One can also use nela/tek as actual verbal phrases, with the compared quality being marked with hoy “to have”:

Nelawaynəd nuku hoy.
be.above-skillful-2S>1S be.strong have
 You’re much stronger than I.

Superlatives are marked with mawə “to be atop”; negative superlatives (sublatives?) are marked with yeg “to be inside”:

Zeg miň mawə, miza ňiy yeg.
lips be.red be.atop / mouth be.quiet be.inside
 The reddest lips, the least quiet mouth.

▹Aspect Usage◃

Aspects are distinguished by an axis of perfective-imperfective, as well as an axis of punctual-process-state.

The momentane indicates that a brief, punctual, or instantaneous action has been completed:

 They said (something).

The iterative indicates that a brief, punctual, or instantaneous action continues (implying multiple instances of that action):

 I was talking to you (again and again).

The continuous emphasizes that the action is ongoing and contiguous, with no breaks or pauses:

 You were speaking to us.

The cessative emphasizes that a process is completed:

 They were talking (but not anymore).

The dynamic and stative aspects are more semantically limited than the others; they can typically only be applied to verbs that indicate a state, such as verbs of place, manner, quality, etc. The dynamic indicates a change in state, while the stative indicates the continuation of a state:

Əphəyog gindabe.
chicken be.black-STAT
 The chicken is black.

Əphəyog gindaga.
chicken be.black-DYN
 The chicken darkened (i.e., from rolling in mud or soot).

When applied to more active verbs, the dynamic or stative can take on a passive meaning:

Wolənjə ecucəkə.
rip-MOM tapestry
 He ripped the tapestry.

Wolənube ecucəkə.
rip-STAT tapestry
 The tapestry is ripped.


The verb serves as a copula:

Wəpo bə.
be-1S mother
 I’m a mother.

Note that verbal affixes can still be applied with their standard meanings:

Cas bac wəphuswoga biklo pats.
man that be-love-PAST-DYN fiance 1S.POSS
 That man became my fiance.


Negatives are formed by the use of an auxiliary sow “to not be”. Any nominal argument can be negated, depending on which argument is most salient:

Pəw sow hipo sandu bac.
1S not.be see-1S elephant that
 I don’t see that elephant. (emphasis on “I”; literally, “it isn’t I who sees the elephant”)

Hipo sandu bac sow.
see-1S elephant that not.be
 I don’t see that elephant. (emphasis on the elephant; literally, “it isn’t an elephant that I see”)

Note that sow can not modify a verb. This can lead to ambiguities:

Wey sow mayukwoga əphə!
3S not.be roast-PAST-DYN duck
 She wasn’t the one who roasted the duck!
 She didn’t roast the duck!

If one wants to emphasize that an action did not happen at all, one negates both core arguments:

Gəph ədz sow yegzuyaňga weyot pats sow.
cat 2S.POSS not.be be.inside-pleasure-FUT-DYN house 1S.POSS not.be
 Your cat will not enter my home.

▹Imperatives and Prohibitives◃

Imperatives use a prefix, Cə-, where C is the first consonant of the stem:

Yəyaya bage əjay!
IMP-kill deer horn
 Kill the horned deer!

Ňəňab huydə!
IMP-eat millet
 Eat the millet!

Vowel-initial stems use əw-:

Əwadnə saba pats!
IMP-grasp hand 1S.POSS
 Hold my hand!

In more formal situations, one uses the contextual -thab “for another’s benefit”, with an optional beneficiary marked with hoy “to have”.

Weba hucithabdejə cəphə.
again move-benefit-2S-MOM door
 Could you use the door next time?

Yəsthabde muyo thilapkhə khats hoy.
speak-benefit-2S truth guest-PL 1PL.IN.POSS have
 Our guests would appreciate it if you told the truth.

For prohibitives, one uses the imperative prefix with the cessative suffix -zik:

Bəbocəmzik weba!
IMP-kiss-CESS 3S
 Don’t kiss her!

Gəgoyuzik ləy kiyəs.
IMP-braid-CESS hair dog-POSS
 Stop braiding the dog’s hair.


When a clause serves to only describe an object’s position, one simply uses locative verbs:

yeg : to be in, to be inside (wholly)
hondzə : to be outside; to be in front of
mawə : to be atop, to be on, to be outside
cuts : to be on, to be covering
səy : to be between, to be mixed in, to be inside (partially)
ay : to be on a vertical surface
əwu : to be parallel to, to be next to, to be near
phac : to be scattered about
nela : to be above
tek : to be below

Jum phacoz de!
flour be.scattered-CONT floor
 There’s flour all over the floor!

Nocə wic aydaw tsob…
saddle 3S.POSS be.vertical-IPST fence
 Her saddle was just on the fence…

Əwupəň səmukkuz.
be.next.to-1S-FUT throne
 I’ll be next to the throne.

One can add a dynamic suffix to state that an object enters the location or state. Locative verbs are assumed to be stative by nature, although the stative suffix -(u)be can be used for emphasis:

Səygəyga pakhay.
be.between-3PL-DYN yeast
 They mix the yeast in.

 I got on top of you (because I was scared).

Həy, dza cutsnədube!
well | 2S be.covering-2S>1S-STAT
 Well, you’re still on top of me!

Əkhiň bac mawəbe dzew khumac.
paint that be.atop-STAT cabinet marble
 That paint is on the marble cabinet.

Locative verbs can also be used as (uninflected) postpositions when the location is not a core argument of the clause. The transformation is S LocV L → L LocV S V O:

Hapwəň səy kekhi nubəphuswoga wib alə na wic.
tree-ASSOC be.between crow bury-love-PAST-DYN chick young most 3S.POSS
 The crow buried her youngest chick among the trees.

However, the locative verb can be dropped in contexts where the specifics are not important, or more broadly in informal situations:

Ňəthe zubyə dadəp jəkiwodaw guňaw hahe.
bowl wine youth find-dissat-IPST malachite crush
 The youth found crushed malachite in his wine glass.

▹Time Expressions◃

Expressing time is typically done in the same method as generic locations:

Didzo phiyakoyonəd.
tomorrow hug-desire-2S>1S
 You’ll want to hug me tomorrow.

De ňac məmənthije.
day this IMP-make.shoe
 Make a shoe today.

There is a part of speech, conventionally referred to as temporals, which can occur either in phrase-initial position, or directly following the verb:

Hipomphoy ən wey.
see-1S-FUT-ITER again 3S
 I’ll see him again.

Temporals can co-occur with other expressions of time:

Hagyez bothekhə tsagmahakhaň habji.
winter finch-PL nest-survival-FUT eventually
 The finches will eventually nest for the winter.

The temporals yədyə “during”, phakna “for all of”, həktsə “until, yet” must co-occur with another time expression:

Jop wey adnəzuyphoy phakna gicə.
night 3S grasp-pleasure-ITER for.all.of penis
 He touches his cock all night.

Iduy tiy dzaphwayoz yədyə.
labor woman feel.pain-intens-CONT during
 A woman is in great pain during labor.

▹Ditransitives and Instrumentals◃

Pholadzaw makes no sharp distinction between ditransitive constructions and instrumental constructions; in other words, most ditransitives are handled as if they are instrumentals. Generally, the theme is marked with a postposed hoy “to have”, though this is not mandatory:

Ňathəkəp phəzzuyaň otsoc wənəp hoy.
witch offer-please-FUT spirit baby have
 The witch will offer the baby to the spirit.

Phungəyjə ac labekhə kic hoy.
scrape-3PL-MOM rock antler-PL 3PL.POSS have
 They scraped the rock with their antlers.

It is usually acceptable to use the contextual -tug “using a tool or with another” with any ditransitive or instrumental construction; however, it is mandatory to use if the theme is a tool (considered any inanimate object that is not a body part):

Bakhitugwəkphoy noy ňac hoy.
clean-tool-3OTH-ITER soap this have.
 She cleans him with this soap.

Petstukkhut bac nadz ucu hoy.
stir-tool-1PL.EXC that long.object bone have
 We stir that with a long bone.


Passives are formed with a very simple transformation, S V O → O V S wə:

Guyu ňac təkezik jiləguz wə.
tapestry this weave-CESS princess be
 This tapestry was woven by the princess.

One can also leave the original subject unstated. The transformation is (S) V O → O V wə:

Simi khats mawə lahokhə mezlendawga wə.
table 1P.IN.POSS be.atop herb-PL take-cruel-IPST-DYN be
 The herbs were stolen from our table.


Generally, causatives are not valency-changing. They are formed by simply appending the causer to the beginning of an otherwise complete clause, and adding the -lə “caused to” contextual to the main verb:

Mey pats gennəwəň yəc ňabləň bayu kaci.
wife 1.POSS puppy-ASSOC brindle eat-caused-FUT oil Qaic
 My wife is going to make the brindle puppies eat Qaic oil.

The causer can also be appended to the end of a clause, although this is generally used when there is already a locative in the clause’s first position. If it is at the end, the causer is usually introduced with a demonstrative. The transformation is Caus S Vlə O → (Loc) S Vlə O Caus (bac):

Weyot ňac yeg zə wic pahuləjə mewə ňathəkəp bac.
house this be.inside dad 3.POSS marry-caused-PAST goat witch that
 That witch made her dad marry a goat inside this house.

Causatives can be valency-changing. There are two transformations: one that makes the original subject into an oblique, and one that makes the original object into an oblique. To make the original subject into an oblique, one uses the contextual -thab, “for the benefit of”. The transformation is Caus S V O → Caus Vthab O S wə:

Məyuguz hətakthapphoy əkhica beləguz wə.
royal.family pose-benefit-ITER painter prince be
 The royal family makes the prince pose for a painter.

If a statement originally had a 1st or 2nd person as the subject, the transformation can be simplified by using the appropriate affix:

Məyuguz hətakthappəphoy əkhica.
royal.family pose-benefit-1S-ITER painter
 The royal family made me pose for a painter.

To make the original object into an oblique, one uses the contextual -tug “using a tool”. The transformation is Caus S V O → Caus Vtug S O wə:

Tsakec phətugdaw wey nadzbə wə.
band blow-tool-IPST 3S flute be
 The band just had him play the flute.


Topics are the focus of a sentence. They can either be a core argument or an oblique argument. For oblique arguments, the transformation is S V O → Topic jək S V O:

Khiyikom jək tsop pats həluthətsawoga khab wic.
Khiyikom find son 1S.POSS reside-closer-PAST-DYN city 3S.POSS
 Speaking of Khiyikhom, my son used to live near his city.

Bəwla jək bolatsujupə matonə.
throat find know-alone-1S Matonno
 When it comes to languages, I know just Matonno.

If one wants to topicalize a core argument, the transformation is S V O → S jək (Pn) V O or S V O → O jək S V (Pn):

Ňupithikhə jək wey sow ňodoňijuwo bac.
skull-PL find 3S not.be gather-group-PAST that
 She didn’t collect skulls.

▹Questions and Answers◃

Yes-no questions use the interrogative -ta, and (optionally) move the verb to the end of the clause:

Cəkə bac ewitadedaw?
wool that dye-Q-2S-IPST
 Did you just dye that wool?

Listanədaň guwim pats?
pierce-Q-2>1-FUT ear 1S.POSS
 Will you pierce my ear?

Yes-no questions are answered with naha "yes" or "no".

Other questions are formed as regular sentences, but with the questioned element missing:

Thatuyagwayphoy jəwəň?
 Who keeps baking (all these kinds of) bread?

 When will they pray?

Interrogatives that question contextuals are answered with a repeat of the verb, inflected with the appropriate contextual:

Weňe hucihuwiwo zuyphə? / Hucimak.
3S move-Q.RESUL-PAST peacock // move-hidden
 What happened to the peacock that he moved? / It's been hidden.

Note that the existing morphemes for question-asking are not enough to cover all possible questions. If one wants to ask "why" (for questions that are not otherwise covered by contextuals), one uses muyo hoy, "the truth is...?":

Wey wənoz, muyo hoy?
3S cry-CONT / truth have
 Why is she crying?

To question a quantity, one uses hoy tse, "...has how much?", most often with a topic. Note that, unlike in muyo hoy, the hoy here is inflected like a regular verb:

Loz jək, hoytse tse?
sheep\PL find / have-2P amount
 How many sheep do you have?

To question a price, use hoy phon:

Tha ədz jək, hoywo phon?
arrow 2S.GEN find / have-PAST price
 How much did your arrow cost?


In multi-clause sentences which have the same agent, one can replace the agent in the first sentence with a pronoun, S₁ VP₁ S₁ VP₂ → Pn VP₁ S VP₂:

Wey bac hondzəmuktsawoga weyuda jiləguz əwuthətsaga aypəno. 3S that be.outside-farther-PAST-DYN castle princess be.next.to-closer-DYN brewery As for the princess, she left the castle and went to the brewery. ▹Coordinating Clauses◃ There are two distinct kinds of coordinating clauses: simultaneous and sequential. Simultaneous clauses describe two events happening at the same time. Generally, there is no implied causation, although generally the two clauses describe some sort of logical relationship. The basic form describes two events with unique subject and object; these clauses are linked with day: Thiz pats kuňujə komkhum day kət pats kuňujə huydə. husband 1S.POSS eat-MOM soup and sister 1S.POSS eat-MOM millet While my husband ate soup, my sister ate millet. Kamujulijnədwo cuyki kadnəgi hoy day weba kamujiyaňwo ňac nəkad! deliver-DUBIT-2S>1S-PAST songbird 30 to.have and 3S.that deliver-ENER-PAST this 40 You might’ve sent me thirty songbirds, but you sent her forty! Begyo tiy tomməcakoz luzə day hukhu sow əwube. Beggül female drink-satisf-CONT milk and sheep be.not be.next.to-STAT The Beggül woman is drinking sheep’s milk though the sheep isn’t nearby. Note that day does not mark for expectedness, unlike English “and” versus “but”. When the subject of both clauses is the same, one can leave out the conjunction and only state the subject once (S V₁ O₁ day S V₂ O₂ → S V₁ O₁ V₂ O₂): Jəkhəjmi bolatstow huyno pahube huyno tiy. Jəkhəjmi speak-CON1 Huyno marry-STAT Huyno female Jəkhəjmi can speak Huyno and he’s married to a Huyno woman. When the object of both clauses is the same, one can leave out the conjunction and replace the first object with a pronoun (S₁ V₁ O day S₂ V₂ O → S₁ V₁ PN S₂ V₂ O): Tiy wehəndew ňac this wic bəduphoy kalacə. woman descale-CON2 this husband 3S.POSS catch.fish-ITER fish-PL The woman can descale the fish as her husband catches them. And when both subject and object are the same, one leaves out the conjunction, the second subject marker, and replaces the first object with a pronoun (S V₁ O day S V₂ O → S V₁ PN V₂ O). It is permissible to leave one verb uninflected in this construction: Yayələ hihutsawo kuy guwňijuwo leytawlə khoco. assassin see-INT.alone-PAST 3PL hear-CIRC.group-PAST cavalry foreign The assassin saw and heard the foreign cavalry. Sequential clauses describe events which have a causal relationship and occur in separate points in time. There are two conjunctions, go (where Clause A > Clause B) and ləm (where Clause A < Clause B). Note that sequential clauses and conjunctions cover a wider range of constructions than English equivalents: Hoyəph lubəjaň dza, go egnudejə guwim ədz. healer request-learn-FUT you / then show-2S-MOM ear 2S.POSS The healer will ask you to show your ear. (lit. “The healer will request you, and then you will show your ear.”) Wey zəkitsoyewo, ləm wey hijə pəw. 3S stop-ASSUM-PAST / due.to 3S see-MOM 1S He probably stopped when he saw me. ▹Relative Clauses◃ Relative clauses serve to modify a noun phrase. The distinction between a non-clausal noun phrase and a clausal noun phrase are fuzzy in Pholadzaw; the easiest indicator of a clausal noun phrase is the presence of an inflected verb: Guz hadlathabjə pəyi pats mezlenwo həkukhə. king pardon-benefit-MOM aunt 1.POSS take-cruelty-PAST chicken-PL The king pardoned my aunt who stole those chickens. It is considered good oration to keep relative clauses, especially long ones, on the periphery of the main clause. This can be accomplished by replacing the noun with a pronoun, and moving the noun to the end of the clause: Bəkhawempodaw kamo. > Kamo bəkhawempodaw. break-accidental-1S-IPST window > window break-accidental-1S-IPST I broke the window. > The window that I broke. Ňac jəksobadzdaw wə kamo bəkhawempo. this find-exposed-IPST be window break-accidental-1S The window that I broke was found. Bac haheguwbo weyot aluph həluz, ləm padətsphoy ňəj. that break-destroy-PAST house priest reside-CONT/ due.to rain-ITER much The house that the priest lives in collapsed due to a lot of rain. ▹Clauses of Knowledge, Belief, and Speech◃ Verbs that describe knowledge, belief, or speech (KBS verbs) do not need any special particle or structure to be used in a clause. One simply states the main clause, and then follows it with a KBS clause: Dzəj hagmə kupcuway japo. day snow melt-skill believe-1S I believe that snow melts quickly in the daytime. Khiyi jəkozwo wenə ňac kekhi yəswebəjwo wə. eagle find-CONT-PAST chalk this crow tell-learn-PAST be The crow was told about the eagle finding this chalk. ▷▹Numerals◃◁ ▹Reference◃ kowə (-kwə) 1 ginu 7 nəgiməs 13 məkhilek 19 nu (nə-) 2 giməs 8 nəgilek 14 kad 20 məs (məCh-) 3 gilek 9 məkhi 15 lek 4 nəgi 10 məkhikwə 16 tsuya 400 gi 5 nəgikwə 11 məkhinu 17 gikwə 6 nəginu 12 məkhiməs 18 thamaw 8000 ▹Formation◃ Pholadzaw, like most languages in its region, uses a base-20 system with a sub-base of 5. Numbers 1 through 5, as well as 20, 400, and 8000 have unique lexemes. 6-9 are formed by additive concatenation: Gikwə, ginu, giməs, gilek. (5+1), (5+2), (5+3), (5+4) Six, seven, eight, nine. 10 and 15 are formed by multiplicative concatenation: Nəgi, məkhi. (2*5, 3*5) Ten, fifteen. Multiples of 20, 400, and 8000 are formed similarly: Ginukad, lekkad, gilektsuya, məkhiməthamaw. (7*20), (4*20), (9*400), (18*8000) 140, 80, 3600, 144000. Other numbers are formed with a largely-self-explanatory combination of multiplicative and additive concatenation: Thamaw-gikwəkad-nəgiməs, lekkad-ginu, nəgikwətsuya-məkhilekkad-məkhinu. (8000+(6*20)+13), ((4*20)+7), ((10*400)+(19*20)+17)) 8193, 87, 4797. ▹Ordinals◃ 1 through 3 have unique ordinal forms: tsewə, ləni, and əňəs. Other ordinals are formed by prefixing the number with ləy-. They can not stand alone, but only modify nouns: Gomo tsewə yegga hagab phəts. pig first be.in-DYN kingdom 1PL.EX.POSS The first pig in our kingdom. Detsayə ňac kuddezik ləwəyez ləy-məkhad-ginu! year this write-2S-CESS letter ORD-67 You’ve just written your 67th letter this year! ▹Arithmetic◃ Addition is expressed with the verb ňodo, “to gather”; subtraction with jaku, “to lose”; multiplication with kəzuj, “to spread out”; division with domay “to clean up”. (Higher-level operations were unknown to the Pholadzaw.) Arithmetic operations are expressed in the form of Solution jək Numeral Operator Numeral wə: Kad jək lekkad-məkhi jaku məkhad-məkhi wə. 20 find ((4*20)+(15)) lose ((3*20)+15)) be 20 = 95 - 75